Solubilities of different lead minerals

Table 3.  Effects of water quality on Pb levels associated with certain scale minerals at equilibrium (PHREEQC model) for different utilities

WQ Parameter

 

Utility 1

Utility 3

Disinfectant

 

Chloramine

Chlorine

Alkalinity

 

83 ppm as CaCO3

41 ppm as CaCO3

pH

 

7.7

9.8

Major Group

Chemical Formula

Equilibrium Pb (μg/L)

Equilibrium Pb (μg/L)

Oxides

  Plattnerite

PbO2

3880

0.796

  Litharge

PbO (tetragonal)

201,000

42,000

Carbonates

  Cerussite

PbCO3

59

147

  Hydrocerussite

Pb2CO3(OH)2

68

19

Phosphates

  OH-pyromorphite

Pb5(PO4)3OH

8

208

  Cl-pyromorphite

Pb5(PO4)3Cl

0.06

6.9

Sulfates

  Lanarkite

PbO PbSO4

257

345

Utility 1: surface water; Utility 3: ground water

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