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Location - Ukraine, former Soviet Union                        

Age (of protore) - 28 Ma

Original size - 283 million tonnes of Mn


Varentsov, O. M., Stolyarov, A. S., Ivleva, E. I., Potkonen, N. I., Gorshkov, A. I., Sokolova, A. L., and Gor'kova, N. V., 1997, On a geochemical model of the formation of the Early Oligocene manganese ores in the eastern Paratethys: the Nikopol' and other deposits of the southern Ukrainian Basin: Geology of Ore Deposits, v. 39, p. 40-57.

Basilevskaya, E. S., 1976, Chemical mineralogical investigations of manganese ores. Trudy Akademii Nauk SSSR Geologicheskii Institut No. 287.

Kuleshov, V. N., 2003, Isotopic composition (╬┤13C, ╬┤18O) and the origin of manganese carbonate ores from the Early Oligocene Deposits, the Eastern Paratethys: Chemie der Erde, v. 63, p. 329-363.

Kuleshov, V. (2017). Isotope Geochemistry: The origin and formation of manganese rocks and ores. Elsevier.

Download geochemistry spreadsheet


Aerial view of old manganese pit at Nikopol (Google Earth)

Rare-earth element extrapolations:

Carbonate Facies (Click thumbnail for larger image)



Oxide Facies (Click thumbnail for larger image)