Mangyshlak oxide and carbonate ore

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Location - Kazakhstan

Age (of protore) - Oligocene

Original size, oxide - 0.4 million tonnes of Mn

Original size, carbonate - 2.6 million tonnes of Mn

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Tikhomarova, E.S., and Cherkasova, E.V., 1965, Trace-element distribution of the Mangyshlak manganese ore deposit. in Sapozhnikoiv, D.G., ed., Manganese Deposits of the Soviet Union. Moscow: Academy of Sciences of the USSR. English translation, 1970, Jerusalem: Israel Program for Scientific Translations, p. 301-322.

Kuleshov, V.N., 2003, Isotopic composition (╬┤13C, ╬┤18O) and the origin of manganese carbonate ores from the Early Oligocene Deposits, the Eastern Paratethys: Chemie der Erde, v. 63, p. 329-363.

Kuleshov, V. (2017). Isotope Geochemistry: The origin and formation of manganese rocks and ores. Elsevier.

Carbon Isotopes and Mn grade (full-size image)


Oxygen and Carbon Isotopes (full-size image)