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Acharya, B.C., Rao, D.S., and Sahoo, R.K., 1997, Mineralogy, chemistry and genesis of Nishikal manganese ores of South Orissa, India: Journal of the Geological Society of India, v. 36, p. 644-653.

Abrecht, J., 1990, An As-rich manganiferous mineral assemblage from the Kodnitz Valley (Eastern Alps, Austria): Geology, mineralogy, genetic considerations, and implications for metamorphic Mn deposits: Neues Jahrbuch für Mineralogie, Monatshefte, no. 8, p. 363-375.

Aleksiev, B. 1960. Sedimentare Manganerse des Oligozans bei Varna-Bulgarien. Freiberger Forschungshefte, C 79, Berlin

Aleksiev, B., & Nacheva, L. 1969. Characteristic of manganese ore from Obrochishte deposit, Tolbuhin area. Ann. Sofia University, Geol-Geogr. Fac. 61: 237–260 (in Bulgarian)

Aleksiev, B., & Nacheva, L. 1969. Substaintal composition of manganese ore from Obrochishte deposit. Ore Product. Metallurgy 7: 18–20 (in Bulgarian)

Ashley. P.M., 1989, Geochemistry and mineralogy of tephroite-bearing rocks from the Hoskins manganese mine, New South Wales, Australia: Neues Jahrbuch für Mineralogie, Abhandlung, v. 161, p. 85-111.

Astrup, J., and Tsikos, H., 1998, Manganese, in Wilson, M.G.C., and Anhaeusser, C.R., eds., The Mineral Resources of South Africa: Pretoria, SA, Council for Geosciences, Handbook 16, p. 450-460.


Bak, K., 2007, Organic-rich and manganese sedimentation during the Cenomanian-Turonian boundary event in the Outer Carpathian basins: a new record from the Skole Nappe, Poland: Paleo3, v. 256, p. 21-46.

Bandopadhyay, P.C., 1988, Syndepositional and postdepositional features of the manganese ore deposits of the Proterozoic Penganga Group, Adilabad district, Andhra Pradesh, India: Mineralium Deposita, v. 23, p. 115-122.

Barbosa, J.S.F., and Sabate, P., 2004, Archean and paleoproterozoic crust of the Sao Francisco craton, Bahia, Brazil: geodynamic features: Precambrian Research, v. 133, p. 1-27.

Basilevskaya, E. S., 1976, Chemical mineralogical investigations of manganese ores. Trudy Akademii Nauk SSSR Geologicheskii Institut No. 287.

Bau, M., and Dulski, P., 1996, Distribution of yttrium and rare-earth elements Penge and Kuruman iron-formations, Transvaal Supergroup, South Africa: Precambrian Research, v. 79, p. 37-55.

Bau, M., and Dulski, P., 1999, Comparing yttrium and rare earths in hydrothermal fluids from the Mid-Atlantic Ridge: implications for Y and REE behavior during near-vent mixing and for the Y/Ho ratio of Proterozoic seawater: Chemical Geology, v. 155, p. 77–90.

Bau, M., and Möller, P., 1993, Rare earth element systematics of the chemically precipitated component in Early Precambrian iron formations and the evolution of the terrestrial atmosphere-hydrosphere-lithosphere system: Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, v. 57, p. 2239-2249.

Bau, M., Bühn, B., and Dulski, P., 1993, Spätproterozoische Mn- und Fe-Formationen im Damara Orogen, Namibia. – II. Lanthaniden als genetische Indikatoren: Geologica et Palaeontologica, v. 27, p. 223-224.

Beauvais, A., Melfi, A., Nahon, D., Trescases, J.J., 1987, Pétrologie du gisement latéritique manganésifère d'Azul (Brésil): Mineralium Deposita, v. 22, p. 124-134.

Beauvais, A., Ruffet, G., Hénocque, O., and Colin, F,. 2008, Chemical and physical erosion rhythms of the West African Cenozoic morphogenesis: The 39Ar-40Ar dating of supergene K-Mn oxides: Journal of Geophysical Research, v. 113, F04007, doi:10.1029/2008JF000996, 2008

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Bernard, A., and Obellianne, J-L., 1963, Aperçu métallogénique sur le gisement de manganèse de Forari: Sciences de la Terre (Nancy), v. 9, p. 121-148.

Beukes, N.J., and Gutzmer, J., 1996, A volcanic-exhalative origin for the world’s largest (Kalahari) manganese field, a discussion of the paper by D.H. Cornell and S.S. Schütte: Mineralium Deposita, v. 31, p. 242-245.

Binns, R.A., Dotter, L.E., and Blacklock, K.A., 2004, Chemistry of  borehole fluids collected at PACMANUS, Papua New Guinea, ODP Leg 193, in Barriga, F.J.A.S., Binns, R.A., Miller, D.J., and Herzig, P.M. (Eds.) Proceedings of the Ocean Drilling Program, Scientific Results Volume 193, p. 4.1-4.15.

Biondi, J. C., & Lopez, M. (2017). Urucum Neoproterozoic–Cambrian manganese deposits (MS, Brazil): Biogenic participation in the ore genesis, geology, geochemistry, and depositional environment. Ore Geology Reviews

Blazy, P., and Houot, R., 1969, Treatment of the manganese ore from Tambao, Upper Volta: Unpublished Report, Ecole nationale supérieure de géologie appliqué et de prospection minière - Nancy

Bogdanova, K. 1968. Structure of manganese ore bed in Obrochishte deposit. Rev. Bulg. Geol. Soc. 29: 13–26 (in Bulgarian)

Bolton, B.R., Berents, H.W., and Frakes, L.A., 1990, Groote Eylandt Manganese Deposit, in Hughes, F.E., ed., Geology of the Mineral Deposits of Australia and Papua New Guinea: Melbourne, The Australasian Institute of Mining and Metallurgy, p. 1575-1579.

Bonatti, E., Fisher, D.E., Joensuu, O.,  Rydell, H.S., and Beyth, M., 1972, Iron-manganese-barium deposit from the northern Afar Rift (Ethiopia): Economic Geology, v. 67, p. 717-730.

Bonatti, E., Zerbi, M., Kay, R., and Rydell, H., 1976, Metalliferous deposits from the Apennine ophiolites: Mesozoic equivalents of modern deposits from oceanic spreading centers: Geological Society of America Bulletin, v. 87, p. 83-94.

Bonhomme, M.G., Gauthier-Lafaye, F., and Weber, F., 1982, An example of Lower Proterozoic sediments: the Francevillian in Gabon: Precambrian Research, v. 18, p. 87-10.

Boni, M., and di Nocera, S., 1977, The geological significance of the manganese-ore mineral facies in the Miocene of the Matese Mountains (Central-Southern Apennines, Italy): Mineralium Deposita, v. 12, p. 281-292.

Brugger, J., and Meisser, N., 2006, Manganese-rich assemblages in the Barrhorn Unit, Turmanntal, central Alps, Switzerland: Canadian Mineralogist, v. 44, p. 229-248.

Brusnitsyn, A. I., Zhukov, I. G., & Kuleshov, V. N., 2009, The Bikkulovskoe manganese deposit (South Urals): Geological setting, composition of metalliferous rocks, and formation model. Lithology and Mineral Resources, 44(6), 557-578.

Bühn, B., Stanistreet, I.G., and Okrush, M., 1992, Late Proterozoic outer shelf manganese and iron deposits at Otjosondu (Namibia) related to the Damaran oceanic opening: Economic Geology, v. 87, p. 1393-1411.

Bühn, B., Okrush, M., Woermann, E., Lehnert, K., and Hoernes, S., 1995, Metamorphic evolution of Neoproterozoic manganese formations and their country rocks at Otjosondu,  Namibia: Journal of Petrology, v. 36, p. 463-496.


Cabral, A.R., Moore, J.M., Mapani, B.S., Koubová, M., and Sattler, C-D., 2011, Geochemical and mineralogical constraints on the genesis of the Otjosondu ferromanganese deposit, Namibia: hydrothermal exhalative versus hydrogenetic (including snowball-Earth) origins. South African Journal of Geology, v.114, p. 57-76.

 Cabral, A.R., Zeh, A., Vianna, N.C., Ackerman, L., Pašava, J., Lehmann, B. and Chrastný, V., 2019. Molybdenum-isotope signals and cerium anomalies in Palaeoproterozoic manganese ore survive high-grade metamorphism. Scientific reports, 9(1), pp.1-7.

Cairncross, B., Beukes, N.J., and Gutzmer, J., 1997, The Manganese Adventure: Johannesburg, Associated Ore & Metal Corporation Ltd.,  236 pp.

Calvert, S. E., and Pedersen, T. F., 1996, Sedimentary geochemistry of manganese: Implications for the environment of formation of manganiferous black shales: Economic Geology, v. 91, p. 36-47.

Canfield, D. E., 1999, The evolution of the Earth surface sulfur reservoir: American Journal of Science, v. 304, p. 839-861.

Canfield, D. E., and Raiswell, R. W., 1999, The evolution of the sulfur cycle: American Journal of Science, v. 299, p. 697-723.

Cannon, W.F., and Force E.R., 1983, Potential for high-grade shallow-marine manganese deposits in North America, in Shanks, W.C., ed., Cameron Volume on Unconventional Mineral Deposits: New York, American Institute of Mining, Metallurgical, and Petroleum Engineers, p. 175-189.

Carmichael, S. K., Doctor, D. H., Wilson, C. G., Feierstein, J., & McAleer, R. J. (2017). New insight into the origin of manganese oxide ore deposits in the Appalachian Valley and Ridge of northeastern Tennessee and northern Virginia, USA. Geological Society of America Bulletin, 129, 1158-1180.

Casey, J.N., 1956, Manganese in Australia, in Gonzalez-Reyna, J., ed., Symposium Sobre Yacimientos de Manganeso: Mexico City, XX Congreso Geological International, v. 4, p. 247-277.

Chaubert, B., 1973, Occurrence of manganese in the Guianas (South America) and their relation with fundamental structures, in Genesis of Precambrian iron and manganese deposits, Proceedings of the Kiev symposium: Paris, U.N. Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, p. 143-151.

Chen, X., Li, D., Ling, H-F., Jiang, S-Y., 2008, Carbon and sulfur isotopic compositions of basal Datangpo Formation, northern Guizhou, South China: implications for depositional environment: Progress in  Natural Science, v. 18, p. 421–429.

 Chen, F., Wang, Q., Yang, S., Zhang, Q., Liu, X., Chen, J. and Carranza, E.J.M., 2018. Space-time distribution of manganese ore deposits along the southern margin of the South China Block, in the context of Palaeo-Tethyan evolution. International Geology Review, 60(1), pp.72-86.

Chetty D. (2008) A geometallurgical evaluation of the ores of the northern Kalahari Manganese Deposit, South Africa. PhD Dissertation, University of Johannesburg (Unpublished).

Chisonga, B. C., Gutzmer, J., Beukes, N. J., & Huizenga, J. M., 2012, Nature and origin of the protolith succession to the Paleoproterozoic Serra do Navio manganese deposit, Amapa Province, Brazil. Ore Geology Reviews47, 59-76.

Choi, J.H., and Hariya, Y., 1992, Geochemistry and depositional environment of Mn oxide deposits in the Tokoro belt, northeastern Hokkaido, Japan: Economic Geology, v. 87, p. 1265-1274.

Chyi, M.S., Crerar, D.A., Carlson, R.W., and Stallard, R.F., 1984, Hydrothermal Mn-deposits of the Franciscan Assemblage, II. Isotope and trace element geochemistry, and implications for hydrothermal convection at spreading centers: Earth and Planetary Science Letters, v. 71, p. 31-45.

Cook, P.J., 1992, Phosphogenesis around the Proterozoic-Phanerozoic transition: Journal of the Geological Society (London), v. 149, p. 615-620.

Cornell, D.H., and Schutte, S.S., 1995, A volcanic-exhalative origin for the world’s largest (Kalahari) manganese field: Mineralium Deposita, v. 30, p. 146-151.

Crerar, D.A., Namson, J., Chyi, M.S., Williams, L., and Feigenson, M.D., 1982, Manganiferous cherts of the Franciscan Assemblage: I. General geology, ancient and modern analogues, and implications for hydrothermal convection at oceanic spreading centers: Economic Geology, v. 77, p. 519-540.



Dale, N.C., 1915, The Cambrian manganese deposits of Conception and Trinity Bays, Newfoundland: Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society, v. 54, p. 371-456.

Dammer D., Chivas A.R. and McDougall I., 1996. Isotopic dating of supergene manganese oxides from the Groote Eylandt deposit, Northern Territory, Australia: Economic Geology 91, 356-401.

Danieilson, A., Moller, P., and Dulski, P., 1992, The europium anomalies in banded iron formations and the thermal history of the oceanic crust: Chemical Geology, v. 97, p. 89-100.

Dasgupta, S., Roy, S., and Fukuoka, M., 1992, Depositional models for manganese oxide and carbonate deposits of the Precambrian Sausar Group, India: Economic Geology, v. 87, p. 1412-1418.

Dekoninck, A., Bernard, A., Barbarand, J., Saint-Bezar, B., Missenard, Y., Lepretre, R., ... & Yans, J. (2016). Detailed mineralogy and petrology of manganese oxyhydroxide deposits of the Imini district (Morocco). Mineralium Deposita, 51(1), 13-23.

De Putter, T., Liégeois, J.P., Dewaele, S., Cailteux, J., Boyce, A. and Mees, F., 2018. Paleoproterozoic manganese and base metals deposits at Kisenge-Kamata (Katanga, DR Congo). Ore Geology Reviews, 96, pp.181-200. 

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Douglas, J.L., 1983, Geochemistry of the Cambrian manganese deposits of eastern Newfoundland: Unpublished PhD Dissertation, Memorial University of Newfoundland, St Johns, Nfld Canada.

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Edmonds, H., and German, C., 2004, Particle geochemistry in the Rainbow hydrothermal plume, mid-Atlantic ridge: Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, v. 68, p. 759-772.

El Agami, N.L., Ibrahim, E.H., and Odah, H.H., 2000, Sedimentary origin of the Mn-Fe ore of Um Bogma, Southwest Sinai: geochemical and paleomagnetic evidence: Economic Geology, v. 95, p. 607-620.

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Fan, D-L, Dasgupta, S., Bolton, B.R., Hariya, Y., Momoi, H., Miura, H., Li, J-J., and Roy, S., 1992, Mineralogy and geochemistry of the Proterozoic Wafangzi ferromanganese deposit, China: Economic Geology, v. 87, p. 1430-1440.

Fan, D-L., Liu, T_B., Yang, P., and Ye, J., 1993, Occurrence of anthraxolite (bitumen) spheroids in Xiangtan-type manganese carbonate deposits of south China, in Parnell, J., Kucha, H., and Landais, P., Bitumens in Ore Deposits: Berlin, Springer-Verlag, p. 447-458.

Fan, D-L., Hein, J.R., and Ye, J., 1999, Ordovician reef-hosted Jiaodingshan Mn-Co deposit and Dawashan Mn deposit, Sichuan Province, China: Ore Geology Reviews, v. 15, p. 135-151.

Fan, D-L., Ye, J., and Li, J-Y., 1999, Geology, mineralogy, and geochemistry of the Middle Proterozoic Wafangzi ferromanganese deposit, Liaoning Province, China: Ore Geology Reviews, v. 15, p. 31-53.

Fan, D-L., Ye, J., Yin, L-M., and Zhang, R-F., 1999, Microbial processes in the formation of the Sinian Gaoyan manganese carbonate ore, Sichuan Province, China: Ore Geology Reviews, v. 15, p. 79-93.

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Force E. R., and Cannon W. F., 1988, A depositional model for shallow-marine manganese deposits around black-shale basins: Economic Geology, v. 83, p. 83-117.

Force E. R., and Maynard J. B. (1991) Manganese: Syngenetic deposits on the margins of anoxic basins, in Force, E.R., Eidel, J.J., and Maynard, J.B., eds., Sedimentary and Diagenetic Mineral Deposits: A Basin Analysis Approach to Exploration: Denver CO,  Society of Economic Geologists, p. 147-159.

Freiberg, D.A., 1983, Geologic setting and origin of the Lucifer manganese deposit, Baja California Sur, Mexico: Economic Geology, v. 78, p. 931-943.

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 Gao, J., Yang, R., Xu, H., Zhang, X., Feng, K. and Zheng, L., 2018. Genesis of Permian sedimentary manganese deposits in Zunyi, Guizhou Province, SW China: Constraints from geology and elemental geochemistry. Journal of Geochemical Exploration, 192, pp.142-154.

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